REFERENCES

[#2016-02] Cordyceps Lin, Bao-quin Cordyceps as an Herbal Drug

Cordyceps is the composite of a genus of fungus that grows on the larva of insects. To date, more than 350 Cordyceps-related species have been found worldwide based on fungus and/or insect host. However, since 1964, only Cordyceps sinensis has been recorded officially as an herbal drug in Chinese pharmacopoeia. C. sinensis, known as Dongchongxiacao (winter-worm summer-grass) in Chinese, is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicines and medicinal mushrooms. The fungus attacks the larva of some species of insects (Fam. Hepialidae), and...

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[#2016-01] Reishi Cai, Zhe et al. Anti-inflammatory activities of Ganoderma for lupus

Abstract Background: Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi; LZ) and San-Miao-San (SMS) are Chinese medicines (CMs) used to treat inflammatory ailments and numbing syndrome/arthralgia syndrome (Bi Zheng), respectively. Given that the main symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) include inflammation of the joints, joint pain, edema and palpitations of the heart because of problems associated with Bi Zheng, it was envisaged that LZ and SMS could be used as potential treatments for this autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the...

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[#2015-06] Lion’s Mane Okamura, Hisayoshi et al. The effects of Hericium erinaceus (Amyloban 3399) on sleep quality and subjective well-being among female undegraduate students – Pilot Study

The pilot study evaluated the effects of a 4-week administration of H. erinaceus (Amyloban 3399) on female undergraduate students who were likely to have a high incidence of sleep problems.  We assessed the changes in asleep quality and subjective well-being with the GHQ-28 and PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index).  Furthermore, we examined the level of salivary free-MHPG after awakening, which is generally regarded as an accurate index of chronic stress and depressive symptoms and reflects sympathetic nervous system activity.  Thus, we...

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[#2015-05] Lion’s Mane Yao, Wei et al. Effects of amycenone on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration

Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and that anti-inflammatory substances have antidepressant effects. Amycenone is obtained from extracts of the Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceum). The purpose of this study is to examine whether amycenone shows anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced mouse model of depression. First, we examined the effects of amycenone on the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the...

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[#2015-04] Maitake Konno, Sensuke et al. Potent Anticancer Effect of PET-Fraction (PET-F) in Comparison with Other Commercial Products on Canine Cancer Cells

A variety of nutritional supplements are commercially available for the potential therapeutic purpose for dogs and other domestic animals with cancers. However, the efficacy of these supplements on those cancer-bearing animals has not been verified and remains uncertain, due to the lack of the sufficient scientific studies/data. To address this important issue, we examined actual anticancer effects of five selected commercial products on the two types of canine cancer models in vitro. Among them, PET-Fraction (PET-F) obtained from maitake...

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[#2015-03] Poria Cheng, Shujie et al. Pachymic Acid Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting ER Stress

Pachymic acid (PA) is a purified triterpene extracted from medicinal fungus Poria cocos. In this paper, we investigated the anticancer effect of PA on human chemotherapy resistant pancreatic cancer. PA triggered apoptosis in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. Comparative gene expression array analysis demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was induced by PA through activation of heat shock response and unfolded protein response related genes. Induced ER stress was confirmed by increasing...

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[#2015-02] Reishi Cheng, Shujie et al. Ganoderma lucidum for Cancer Treatment: We Are Close but Still Not There

The medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for millennia to improve health and promote longevity. The idea of using G. lucidum for cancer treatment is based on numerous laboratory and preclinical studies with cancer and immune cells as well as animal models demonstrating various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. For example, G. lucidum possesses cytotoxic, cytostatic, antimetastatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities. Limited clinical studies, including case reports and...

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[#2015-01] Meshima Konno, Sensuke et al. Potent Anticancer Effects of Bioactive Mushroom Extracts (Phellinus linteus) on a Variety of Human Cancer Cells

Abstract Background: Although several therapeutic options are currently available for patients with various cancers, the outcomes are often disappointing and a more effective modality needs to be promptly established. We have been exploring an alternative approach using natural agents and two bioactive mushroom extracts isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), namely PL-ES and PL-I-ES, were of our interest.  As anticancer effects of similar extracts have been reported in several cancers, we investigated whether PL-ES and PL-I-ES might have...

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[#2014-10] Lion’s Mane Inanaga, Kazutoyo Case Report: Recovery from Schizophrenia using AmylobanⓇ3399 compounds extracted from Hericium erinaceum

Hericium erinaceum (HE) is a unique mushroom for its cognitive function improving actions. HE is known as Yamabushitake in Japanese and Lion’s Mane in English.  Since the early 1990s, Kawagishi and his colleagues have been investigating the role of the compounds derived from HE in the treatment of dementia (Kawagishi et al., 1991; Kawagishi et al., 1992; Kawagishi et al., 2004; Kawagishi et al., 2008). Bioactive substances in HE have the potential to stimulate the production of NGF, repair neuronal damage and improve brain function...

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[#2014-11] Cordyceps, Reishi, Royal Agaricus Hahne, Jens C. et al. The effect of Cordyceps extract and a mixture of Ganoderma lucium Agaricus Blazi Murill extract on human endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecological malignancy. Nevertheless there is a lack of curative therapies, especially for patients diagnosed with late stage, recurrent or aggressive disease, who have a poor prognosis. Cordyceps Sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Agaricus Blazi Murill are three fungi widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, and effects as adjuvants in tumour therapy have been demonstrated. However, the function and effects of these fungi in regard to endometrial cancer are not known. Three...

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