REFERENCES

[#2015-05] Lion’s Mane Yao, Wei et al. Effects of amycenone on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, and depression-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration

Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and that anti-inflammatory substances have antidepressant effects. Amycenone is obtained from extracts of the Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceum). The purpose of this study is to examine whether amycenone shows anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects in an inflammation-induced mouse model of depression. First, we examined the effects of amycenone on the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the...

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[#2015-04] Maitake Konno, Sensuke et al. Potent Anticancer Effect of PET-Fraction (PET-F) in Comparison with Other Commercial Products on Canine Cancer Cells

A variety of nutritional supplements are commercially available for the potential therapeutic purpose for dogs and other domestic animals with cancers. However, the efficacy of these supplements on those cancer-bearing animals has not been verified and remains uncertain, due to the lack of the sufficient scientific studies/data. To address this important issue, we examined actual anticancer effects of five selected commercial products on the two types of canine cancer models in vitro. Among them, PET-Fraction (PET-F) obtained from maitake...

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[#2015-03] Poria Cheng, Shujie et al. Pachymic Acid Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting ER Stress

Pachymic acid (PA) is a purified triterpene extracted from medicinal fungus Poria cocos. In this paper, we investigated the anticancer effect of PA on human chemotherapy resistant pancreatic cancer. PA triggered apoptosis in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. Comparative gene expression array analysis demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was induced by PA through activation of heat shock response and unfolded protein response related genes. Induced ER stress was confirmed by increasing...

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[#2015-02] Reishi Cheng, Shujie et al. Ganoderma lucidum for Cancer Treatment: We Are Close but Still Not There

The medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for millennia to improve health and promote longevity. The idea of using G. lucidum for cancer treatment is based on numerous laboratory and preclinical studies with cancer and immune cells as well as animal models demonstrating various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. For example, G. lucidum possesses cytotoxic, cytostatic, antimetastatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities. Limited clinical studies, including case reports and...

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[#2015-01] Meshima Konno, Sensuke et al. Potent Anticancer Effects of Bioactive Mushroom Extracts (Phellinus linteus) on a Variety of Human Cancer Cells

Abstract Background: Although several therapeutic options are currently available for patients with various cancers, the outcomes are often disappointing and a more effective modality needs to be promptly established. We have been exploring an alternative approach using natural agents and two bioactive mushroom extracts isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), namely PL-ES and PL-I-ES, were of our interest.  As anticancer effects of similar extracts have been reported in several cancers, we investigated whether PL-ES and PL-I-ES might have...

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[#2014-10] Lion’s Mane Inanaga, Kazutoyo Case Report: Recovery from Schizophrenia using AmylobanⓇ3399 compounds extracted from Hericium erinaceum

Hericium erinaceum (HE) is a unique mushroom for its cognitive function improving actions. HE is known as Yamabushitake in Japanese and Lion’s Mane in English.  Since the early 1990s, Kawagishi and his colleagues have been investigating the role of the compounds derived from HE in the treatment of dementia (Kawagishi et al., 1991; Kawagishi et al., 1992; Kawagishi et al., 2004; Kawagishi et al., 2008). Bioactive substances in HE have the potential to stimulate the production of NGF, repair neuronal damage and improve brain function...

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[#2014-11] Cordyceps, Reishi, Royal Agaricus Hahne, Jens C. et al. The effect of Cordyceps extract and a mixture of Ganoderma lucium Agaricus Blazi Murill extract on human endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecological malignancy. Nevertheless there is a lack of curative therapies, especially for patients diagnosed with late stage, recurrent or aggressive disease, who have a poor prognosis. Cordyceps Sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Agaricus Blazi Murill are three fungi widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, and effects as adjuvants in tumour therapy have been demonstrated. However, the function and effects of these fungi in regard to endometrial cancer are not known. Three...

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[#2014-09] Reishi Zhang, Wenjing et al. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display...

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[#2014-08] Poria Tang, Jin et al. Characterization and antioxidant activities of degraded polysaccharides from Poria cocos sclerotium

Poria cocos F.A.Wolf is a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat chronic gastritis, edema, nephrosis, gastric atony, and acute gastroenteric catarrh. Polysaccharides are the main active component of P.cocos. We obtained polysaccharides PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 from the degradation of P. cocos polysaccha-rides (PCP) with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. Molecular weights were determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. HPLC analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 are...

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[#2014-07] Meshima Chen, Yi-Shyan et al. Hispolon Decreases Melanin Production and Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells through the Downregulation of Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expressions and the Activation of Caspase-3, -8 and -9

Abstract: Hispolon is one of the most important functional compounds that forms Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng. Hispolon has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anticancer effects. In this study, we analyzed the functions of hispolon on melanogenesis and apoptosis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that hispolon is not an enzymatic inhibitor for tyrosinase; rather, it represses the expression of tyrosinase and the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) to reduce...

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